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The house mouse, Mus musculus, was established in the early 1900s as one of the first genetic model organisms owing to its short generation time, comparatively large litters, ease of husbandry, and visible phenotypic variants. After the rediscovery of Mendel’s laws in 1900, these colonies of ‘fancy’ mice – hybrids between Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. musculus – became the source of laboratory mice for early genetic studies. The mouse genome was sequenced in 2002 and it was shown that almost every gene in the mouse genome had a human homolog. Therefore, during the first two postnatal weeks, their survival is strictly dependent on the mother. By 2011, the sequences of genomes from 17 strains of mice were obtained using next-generation sequencing. For thousands of years, house mice have been commensal with and have been transported by humans throughout the world [3]. This video provides an overview of the mouse as a model organism and discusses some of its many applications in biological and biomedical research. Ironically, this mammalian species has been a laboratory model for more than a century, but is not until recently that its wild populations and their taxonomy become to be correctly described with the help of genetic tools. Recognizing the value of homozygous mice for studying inheritance, several sets of inbred strains were established by intercrossing of sibling mice. It is well known that at this earliest stage, mouse pups are highly vocal, emitting a variety of calls in different motivationally relevant contexts that elicit adequate maternal care (Branchi, Santucci, Vitale, & Alleva, 1998; Ehret & Bernecker, 1986). In our project we will use the Mus musculus Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates. Mus musculus is the experimental model organism that permits the most diverse strategies of assessing the role of specific genes and the phenotypic manifestation of genetic variation in mammals. We therefore have developed an in vitro model of vascularized human AT-like organoids that constitute an excellent tool and model for any study of human AT. While early studies focused on cancer and immunological differences between different inbred strains and their derivatives obtained by backcrossing (congenic lines), more recent investigations revealed remarkable phenotypic differences in their physiology, metabolism, and behavior. The complete mouse reference genome was sequenced in 2002. "Mus musculus", Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia For this reason, there is a great deal of literature on many aspects of its biology and more than 6000 reference could be retrieved for the last 40 years. Günter Ehret, in Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience, 2018. The focus of the present chapter is on the emission of USVs because these have been shown to play a highly relevant role in mother-pup communication, allowing a fine-tuning of pup behaviors with maternal responses. NCBI Mus musculus Annotation Release 109. Aside from the close resemblance of many complex physiologic systems to those of humans, what makes the mouse an even more attractive model organism is its ease of reproduction, relatively low cost, and short gestation period (Gama Sosa et al., 2012). LCMV can be transmitted vertically or horizontally. Since the House Mouse is often taken as a model species, this may have important bearings on our understanding of the context in which genome evolution and speciation occurs. By 2011, the sequences of genomes from 17 strains of mice were obtained using next-generation sequencing. F. Bonhomme, A. Orth, in Brenner's Encyclopedia of Genetics (Second Edition), 2013. The mouse genome has some 3,000 million (3 billion) base pairs and is estimated to have at least 50,000 genes . Search model organisms. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. NCBI Mus musculus Updated Annotation Release 108.20200622. As vertebrates and mammals, mice develop diseases that naturally affect immune, endocrine, nervous, skeletal, digestive, and cardiovascular systems. It is also the species which has paid the largest tribute to modern science, because the historical laboratory strains (the old inbreds) stem from this species through the old tradition of fancy mice which were bred in Europe and Asia for their coat color. For the past decade, genetic engineering has focused on improving techniques to develop mutant embryonic stem (ES) cells; knockout, knockin, and conditional strategies; N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea mutagenesis; gene trapping; and multiparental recombinant inbred lines for use in mapping and studies involving quantitative trait loci. Large number of offspring (10–12 per time). High concentrations of virus have been identified in the blood, organs, urine, and feces of Syrian hamsters (Skinner and Knight, 1979; Smadel and Wall, 1942; Thacker et al., 1982). Mus musculus genome: All of the genetic information contained in Mus musculus, ... those pieces could be reassembled to produce a serviceable model of the mouse genome. This use has increased in recent years with the development of techniques to successfully modify the mouse genome. It is almost invariably considered as being constituted of three subspecies, Mus musculus castaneus being considered as more polymorphic, with a larger effective population size and as having retained more ancestral polymorphisms than the other two. The gravid uterus was pulled through a disinfectant solution into a sterile flexible film isolator where the pups were removed from the uterus and suckled on axenic (i.e., germ-free) foster dams. Foreign DNA can be easily introduced through embryo manipulation methods. It is also the species which has paid the largest tribute to modern science, because the historical laboratory strains (the old inbreds) stem from this species through the old tradition of fancy mice which were bred in Europe and Asia for their coat color. These volumes were soon replaced by more comprehensive electronic inventories and resource databases. Contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption mentioned in the Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig Hamster... 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